WESTBOROUGH, MA February 23, 2018 Dementia is an affliction that slowly robs patients of their capacity to remember new information. Meanwhile their personal history remains readily available to them. That is why so many are able to share stories sometimes over and over. The cost of living with dementia for those so diagnosed is not a singular phenomena. It effects the entire family and the wider community in which the patient lives. For many living with dementia is a lonely experience with sometimes overwhelming sadness seeing a loved one slowly transform into child-like dependency. Caregivers are at high risk for burn out when they care for a loved one day-after-day. For many living with a person who has dementia can be an unforgettable challenge that often evokes guilt, resentment and despair.
There are many myths associated dementia that are worth pointing out. First, old age and dementia are not synonymous. Patients always say to me “what do you expect I am 82 years old” when I first begin the assessment process. Research according to the APA, has shown in the right environment memory should not fail solely on the basis of age.
Part of this post was first publish nearly 3 years ago in 2015 and remains a timely addition to the literature on dementia, its assessment and impact on quality of life for those involved. I have made some changes to the post from 2-1-2016 to update it and introduce another post that will be published shortly about dementia. Pleased stay tuned to this blog and learn all about the affliction of dementia and more on the use of clocks for the assessment of cognitive changes. I have added a person story that is compelling and has to do with this topic. Thanks – I hope you like the upcoming posts.
“For many living with a person who has dementia can be an unforgettable challenge that evokes guilt, resentment and despair.” Michael Sefton 2018
The assessment of dementia is often stressful and the diagnosis is difficult to make. The stress comes from the rare times that psychologist must give “bad news” to families of patients suffering with changes in their mental faculties. Unlike our physician brethren, psychologists rarely have to give family members bad news or news that reflects a change in life expectancy. One might expect this as normal from a physician who specializes in cancer or tumor treatment. But in general, our discipline is not called upon to provide such subjective prognostic diagnoses very often. Dementia is one of those conditions primarily diagnosed by neuropsychological testing that has obvious impact on the life expectancy and the overall quality of life of those afflicted with it.
This clock above was drawn by a 78-year old man who was referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment to determine the extent of change in dementia from his initial testing 24 months earlier. You can learn quite a bit from the drawings of people thought to be suffering from dementia. In this case, the patient was friendly and compliant. He put forth a good effort and worked with diligence and earnest. The task is the same for all cases – “draw a clock, put all the numbers on it and set the hands for 11:10.”
This clock effectively demonstrated the decline in the gentleman’s neurocognition. It was poorly organized. There was some neglect of the left hemi-space. He had no self-monitoring or internal executive capacity to guide his construction. He seemed surprised when I pointed out his work. The numbers were not correctly placed. The slash marks were meant as minute marks and not number 11. However, there were repeated numerals and reversals. No hands were placed.
I learned about cognitive testing while an intern at Boston City Hospital – now B.U. Medical Center in the South End. I loved my time there. I wrote a blog about clocks and the utility of the clock drawing about a year ago called “All this from a Clock”. If interested in the clock drawing take a look at the link I posted. There is growing from clinicians around the world about dementia and using the clock as a screening tool. The ABC in Australia recently chose one of the clocks recently published to feature on an upcoming program on dementia it is not clear when the program will be broadcast in Australia but I will post a link to the show once it is ready for broadcast. Stay tuned to http://www.concussionassessment.wordpress.com and Michael Sefton for further details.
WESTBOROUGH, MA September 25, 2017 This clock is unique simply on the basis of it’s size. The scale below the 3 clocks is used for measuring wounds. It was given to me by the certified wound care specialist here at Whittier. The top clock was the “finished” product. One can see all the numbers were written and there was a series of hands drawn that appear as scribble moving from left to right. The numbers fall outside of the circle – drawn by the patient. You can appreciate what effort went into the clock as small as it was – only 8 millimeters across. Micrographia is a term given to drawings that are tiny – a syndrome often assigned to dysfunction in the frontal lobe of the brain. Just to be sure, I consulted with Lezak – 3rd Edition. Micrographic written output is seen in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. In another blog published in 2016, I shared a similar clock and describe this interesting syndrome.
WESTBOROUGH, MA September 15, 2017 Much has been published about the utility of the clock drawing in making preliminary assumptions about the cognitive health of an individual who may be referred for neuropsychological assessment. I use it all the time and those of you who have submitted clocks for publication here agree with my assumptions. The photograph at the left was taken at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts by a colleague Dr. David Kent, a neuropsychologist from Worcester, MA. There are several posts that identify some of the literature behind the assumptions I make about clock drawing and cognition. Here is another link: Clocks and cognition
WESTBOROUGH, MA August 6, 2017 Self-monitoring refers to the capacity to observe one’s own behavior in real time. It is easy to see when someone lacks this important neurocognitive feature. Walk into any middle school and there will be hundreds of boys who act and behave without forethought. Self-monitoring is a higher-order function that sets us apart from other species – even primates and is thought to mature in the second or third decade of life. It is possible to lose the ability to watch and adjust behavior such as with traumatic brain injury involving frontal lobe structures and in disorders of cognition such as dementia. How is it possible to lose appreciation for the organization of the task (see drawing on left) and fail to notice one’s errors?
The bicycle task requires a rudimentary capacity to envision the bike and draw it from the image one has in his head. It requires conceptualization, motor control and visual motor integration for success. The task is age old – like the clocks frequently featured in these pages. Self-monitoring is a prerequisite for social pragmatics – a fancy term for acting your age. In some cases the failure in self-monitoring results in errors in behavior that can become socially debilitating – especially when the patient demonstrates an indifference to his limitations and does not respond to redirection and feedback. The task of constructing a bicycle is a screening for higher order deficits. Like the clock drawing it requires planning, organization, even mechanical awareness. Muriel Lezak says that regardless of lesion the task requires judgment, organization, conceptual integration, and accurate self-appraisal. Those with defective self-monitoring often miss important features and omit crucial parts of the bicycle’s mechanism like pedals, chain or both (Lezak, 1995)
“The capacity to self-monitor and modify one’s behavior is required in an open society or the lack of order would result in people being oblivious to each other and indifferent toward their personal effect on social and interpersonal relationships” Michael Sefton 2017
In the first bike drawing the patient constructed the bicycle as asked but became confused very quickly. the two objects extending out from the left and right are wheels that were drawn after I had asked “how does it work?” Interestingly one of the scoring criteria are the correct placement of spokes on the wheels. There are no spokes on the wheels of the second and third drawings. In some cases the concept of perseveration is revealing of decreased self-monitoring. In a published blog the concept is described. It is the process of repeating the same response over and over without awareness.
Lezak, M. Neuropsychological Assessment – Third Edition. Oxford Press, 1995.
Sefton, M. (2016) Perseveration, severation, eration, ation, blog post, taken August 8, 2017.
Westborough, MA June 6, 2017 The clock of the week is depicted below. It was submitted this week by the Speech Language Pathology service at Whittier Rehabilitation Hospital. I sometimes find it humorous that when I ask a patient to draw a clock they will have already drawn a clock for the speech pathologist. The drawing is used in all aspects of cognitive assessment by pracititioners of all types from neuropsychology to internal medicine to emergency medicine. I typically begin an assessment with the clock drawing because it is nonthreatening and offers a great deal of interesting information about the cognitive capacity of the patient. It was drawn by a 93-year old male with congestive heart
Right handed 93-y/o male with probable dementia
failure and Paget’s disease. It is a disease affecting bone that interferes with the body’s normal recycling process, in which new bone tissue gradually replaces old bone tissue. Over time, the disease can cause affected bones to become fragile and misshapen (Mayo Clinic, 2017). In my experience there is no cognitive deficits associated with Paget’s. This clock is suggestive of what seemed to be a great start – in terms of the initial placement of the numbers although as you can see the numbers 1-6 were drawn on both sides of the circle. This is an unusual finding suggesting decreased problem solving and self-monitoring on behalf of the patient. The SLP drew the circle for the patient. I would suggest that the patient should be allowed to create his or her own circle as this can provide interesting data as well. I once had a patient draw and elaborate grandfather clock fit for a castle. The clock face became secondary and insignificant – for him. The clock is a regular feature here at Concussion Assessment and Management.
Anyone can submit a clock for consideration of the clock of the week. Upload to my email address: firstname.lastname@example.org – No identifying HIPPA protected information please but a brief overview is always helpful.
WESTBOROUGH, MA October 14, 2016 What does the term ‘to perseverate’ refer to in clinical terms. The media attached below will illustrate the concept of perseveration in its clinical presentation. The patient was asked to copy her name. A model was presented for her by the examiner. Most people have control over behavior through a series of feedback loops that become active in the brain that allow for anticipatory awareness and behavioral prospective as a person reaches full cognitive maturity. Patients who are recovering from right hemisphere lesions often exhibit the pattern
of repetition without regard for how appropriate the pattern may be in respect to the task demand. You can see that the patient draws what appear to be tee pee shaped figures and two horizontal lines – perhaps a modified upper case A. Meanwhile, she repeated the figure until she ran out of paper at the bottom margin. In blogs already published I have mentioned the term perseveration and made an effort to illustrate its unusual presentation. One can see in the feature image a circular pattern of zeros as a patient attempted the clock drawing. The patient got stuck making the number 0. In the recent blog on this topic, I posted a video for the readers use that shows one case of perseveration in an older patient drawing circles over and over.
The term refers to the pattern of repeated motor movement in spite of the indication (or feedback) that the response is no longer needed or is inappropriate. As you can see by this drawing the individual continued to make the same pattern over and over without regard for the task I had assigned – copy your name.
Treatment from serious stroke require months of cognitive rehabilitation in addition to physical and occupational therapy. patients must be taught to recognize their cognitive vulnerability to errors like this. As recovery is made most patients establish improved self-monitoring to compensate for their weaknesses. But some fail to re-establish the feedback loops and awareness that allow them to live in the world with the immediate awareness that once is enough and it is okay to stop.