CTE and its violent underpining

images-1
Google images – CTE
WESTBOROUGH, MA January 20, 2018 More is becoming known about Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy or CTE.  It is now able to be diagnosed prior to the death of the patient by identifying unique protein markers in the blood of those who have sustained multiple brain injuries.  Former professional wrestler Chris Benoit was found to have CTE after killing his wife and son before killing himself in 2007. But murder or other violence against others has not typically been associated with CTE until recently.  As recently as summer, 2017, the brain of former N.E. Patriots star Aaron Hernandez was also found to have signs of severe CTE raising the specter of its possible impact on his violent life and eventual death by suicide. I have posted post-mortem photos of his brain first published on the Boston University site in a prior blog on my Concussion site (Sefton, 2017).  See that post by clicking here.  It is now understood that an athlete need not have sustained numerous concussions in his career to be found to have CTE at time of death.  More so, the accumulation of repeated blows to the head – subconcussive force – is being implicated in the etiology of this complex disease process. So contact sports like football, rugby and ice hockey are being closely scrutinized by experts in concussion, athletic training and sports medicine.  Researchers at BU School of Medicine have reported that a protein known as CLL11 may be elevated in the brain and spinal fluid of athletes with a history of brain injury.  It holds some promise of being able to diagnose athletes before death.  This protein leads to elevate Tau protein a known cause of progressive brain damage associated with dementia.
In 2014, The K.C. Star reported that analysis of Belcher’s brain after he’d been exhumed revealed a key signature of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, best known as CTE, a degenerative brain disease found to cause dementia, confusion, depression and aggression). “Belcher’s murder-suicide is the worst possible example of domestic violence, and these findings come as the NFL is under attack for its handling of domestic violence.” (Mellinger, 2014 Kansas City Star). 
“CTE has been found to cause erratic and sometimes tragic behavior by some NFL players, perhaps most notably Hall of Fame linebacker Junior Seau, who killed himself last year. The disease, only recently diagnosable before death, has often been found in former and longtime football players.” Mellinger, 2014 K.C. Star
 Riding a bicycle is a leading cause of brain injury in childhood. Recently, CTE has not been diagnosable before death. It has been found over and over in former and longtime football players. Domestic violence behaviors cut across all socioeconomic strata.  They germinate in an environment of secrecy often early in courtship.  During this time abusive spouse slowly isolates his intimate partner from her support – family, friends, finances.  “In doing so there is a subtle but undeniable manipulation of control – usually coupled with threats and intimidation.  There is growing awareness that red flag behaviors precede DV and domestic violence homicide.  Things like pathological jealousy, forced sexual contact, manipulating friendships, detachment from members of immediate family and others are the early signs of domestic violence.” (Sefton, 2012)  Some believe that the most significant pre-incident red flag is whether or not the victim truly believes she is going to be killed by her intimate partner one day and that these victims are at most risk of death.

Sefton, M (2012) Athletes and Celebrities Not Immuned: Kansas City Chief’s player kills wife and self in act of DVH, Blog post December 1, 2014, taken December 28, 2017. 
Sefton, M. (2017). Brain and Behavior: B.U. scientist says Aaron Hernandez had CTE. Blog post, Nov 19, 2017 Taken December 28, 2017
Read more here: http://www.kansascity.com/sports/nfl/kansas-city-chiefs/article2296030.html#storylink=cpy
Read more here: http://www.kansascity.com/sports/spt-columns-blogs/vahe-gregorian/article187534063.html#storylink=cpy
Advertisements

CTE found in teenage brains by B.U. team

WESTBROUGH, MA January 18, 2018 The scientists studying the damaged brains of older athletes have had the opportunity to study brain damage in athletes who died from other causes.  In 4 such cases, there was evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that was not commensurate with the degree of brain trauma that was observed during their athletic careers according to Felice Freyer of the Boston Globe. This recent study was published in the journal Brain illustrates that the onset of CTE may be closer to onset of brain injury than first thought not much later in life.
“The report, published Thursday in the journal Brain, also provides what Goldstein called “the best evidence to date” supporting the theory that CTE is caused not just by concussions, but rather by any blow to the head, including mild impacts. Instead of diagnosing and responding to concussions, he said, coaches would do better to protect children from all hits to the head.” Felice Freyer – Boston Globe 1-8-18
The possibility of younger athletes developing CTE and the symptoms associated with this progressive disease is quite worrisome especially to parents.  It was always thought that CTE would develop later in life if at all. With the prospects of the disease having a much earlier onset the cost of CTE over a lifetime is incalculable in terms of medical costs and neuropsychological sequelae that may evolve in time. The true impact of this and the consequence for repeated, subclinical blows to the head is only now becoming clear.
Like dementia of the Alzheimer’s type the build up of tau protein underlies the changes associated with CTE. “Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a condition bringing forth progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging in age from 17 to 98 years (mean 59.5 years), including 64 athletes, 21 military veterans (86% of whom were also athletes) and one individual who engaged in self-injurious head banging behavior” according to the journal Brain. McKee, A. et. al. 2017

McKee, A. et. al. (2017) The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain, Volume 136, Issue 1, 1 January 2013, Pages 43–64, https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws307

Once common treatment of concussion

Head injuries at the time were treated as mere nuisances. Players reacted to violent head blows by trying to blink away their blurred vision, shake the ringing from their skulls, and trundle back to their huddles, unless they were flagged by sideline doctors. Even then, they generally returned quickly to action.  Boston Globe October 2017

Clock of the Year – Vote for your favorite of 2017

WESTBOROUGH, MA It is time once again to select the “Clock of the Year”.  Voting will go on for the next week.   There are 10 clocks featured this year each one drawn by a patient undergoing rehabilitation at Whittier Rehabilitation Hospital in Westborough, MA.  The diagnoses of each patient may or may not be presented with the clock as it scrolls through.  Any clock with a measuring tape would be presented in millimeters-centimeters not inches.  The clocks shown in millimeters are tiny – micrographic in quality.  The first clock in the slideshow is drawn by a 93-year old – each one would then become a successive number through # 10.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

I have published many blogs about the use of the clock drawing in clinical practice.  Clock drawing was first introduced to me in my practice as a pre-doctoral student in psychology at the V.A. Medical Center in Boston by Dr. Edith Kaplan.  She taught us that
img_6882
Michael Sefton at MFA Boston

something as simple as a clock drawing can become a daunting task when faced with cognitive changes from brain injury, stroke, or dementia.  I carry on this tradition in honor of Dr. Kaplan and the role she played in my formative work as a neuropsychologist.  Today, every discipline it seems uses a clock to assess problem solving, organization, and following directions in patients with suspected decline in their thinking skill. Dr Kaplan died in September, 2009 and is missed even now.

Neurological trauma and enduring change in survivors

Westborough, MA December 18, 2017 The British Medical Journal Lancet recently published a series of articles describing the long-term effects of brain trauma. The series is worth a serious read for those who are in the position to take care of trauma patients.

traumatic-brain-injury.jpg

There has been little change in our approach to handling the individual grind of caring for the TBI patient I must sadly admit.  Young and old it takes both patience and dedication to achieve the best outcomes with those we bring into our treatment continuum. “Survivors experience a substantial burden of physical, psychiatric, emotional, and cognitive disabilities, which disrupt the lives of individuals and their families, and pose huge costs to society” according the Lancet, 2017.  Many readers have read my post Updates in these pages where I have detailed well-known athletes like Formula 1 car driver Michael Schumacher and Mike Towell, the Irish boxer both of whom were seriously injured from TBI.  Towell died from injuries linked to second impact syndrome following a match in 2016.
Schumacher remains in a minimally conscious state in Switzerland.  He is conscious but does not speak or move about.  He requires 24 hour medical care and is living is a special suite adapted in his home that allows him to continue to receive the best care possible while being in his familiar setting surrounded by family and friends.  The cost of his care exceeds $ 100,000 per month.
Some reports suggest Mr. Trowell had sustained a brain injury in the early rounds of the fight.  “Essentially, “second impact syndrome” or SIS results from the brain’s inability to autoregulate cerebral perfusion pressure and swelling as a result of repeated cerebral trauma.” Sefton, 2016 on second impact syndrome and Mike Trowell
Autonomic regulation is the role of the brain stem that maintains the diurnal pattern of arousal for wakeful activity and sleep hygiene.  The brain stem regulates heart rate and respiratory drive as well.  These functions are vital to survival and comprise the autonomic nervous system.  The ANS functions as the brain and body’s alarm system signaling the need for fight-flight activation according to a Autonomic Storming post by Michael Sefton, Ph.D.
Lancet identifies the complexity of TBI and its multifactorial underpinning.  A growing number of patients are elderly that contribute to “heterogeneity of outcomes and consider ways forward for targeted management of severe TBI in the intensive care unit” as mentioned in the 2017 Lancet summary.  Improved management of TBI in the trauma centers and ICUs bring forth better rehabilitation candidates and better outcomes including return to home and eventually return to preinjury employment for many.  Surgical intervention crafted to decrease secondary injury to brain have been enhanced by improved diagnostic accumen, imaging and novel techniques such as radical craniectomy and cranioplasty for management of intracranial pressure and its associated edema.
The series also explains PSH or “autonomic storming” something that I have described in several posts and can be quite serious both in the trauma canter and later in the rehabilitation hospital   “Geert Meyfroidt and colleagues provide an overview of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, a consequence of acute brain injury, and discuss the promise of improved characterization and implications for management”. Damage to the system that regulates sympathetic and parasympathetic functioins due to traumatic brain injury can be unsettling for familiy members and clinicians alike. The recovering subject can have wild swings of autonomic arousal such as elevated heart rate – patients sometimes chug along at 140-160 while autonomic storming.  Paroxysmal changes in blood pressure may pose significant risk, respiratory rate may become tachypnic, patients frequent are febrile and may become excessively sweaty  as a consequence of autonomic dysfunction.  Patients in our rehabilitation frequently undergo repeated blood cultures and lab studies looking for a source of infection.  Many are returned to the trauma centers for additional brain imaging studies and cardiac monitoring that takes hours and is often unneccessary.  These procedures delay recovery and add confusion to the patient and his family.
The regulation of the secondary injuries such as paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is essential for patient well-being and outcome measures including returning home and re-entering the work force. The Lancet series is a well written update on current brain injury treatment and management of this serious public health threat.

 Lancet Neuology (2017) Jun;16(6):452-464. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30118-7. Traumatic Brain Injury. Taken 12-18-2017.

Brain and Behavior: B.U. scientist says Aaron Hernandez had CTE

Westborough, MA November 18, 2017 The NFL has some explaining to do. Why are former athletes killing themselves and in some cases other people? As students studying the brain it was something special when you could make a correlation between an identified brain lesion and the behavior you are seeing.  I was in China in early November 2017 at a conference on RNA targeted therapy for cancer.  As the non-scientist in the group I was referred to as the clinician who saw the phenotype rather than the genotype – referring to the innumerable genetic underpinnings of cellular biology and changing science of modified nucleotides.  I understood this to have some meaningful interest to the faculty that consisted of 3 prior Nobel laureates and leading scientists in RNA targeted therapy.  So after sitting through hours of presentations I realize the importance of not making a rush to judgment about the cause of some predicted outcome. As a neuropsychologist we are asked to make assumptions about brain integrity after CNS infarcts and make educated predictions about the functional implication of focal lesions in brain.
Recently the scientists at Boston University announced the results of the post-mortem analysis of the brain of Aaron Hernandez, former N.E. Patriots receiver and convicted murderer.  Hernandez had his conviction expunged after he died while his case was on appeal. The 27-year old brain was highly suggestive of having the tell tale signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE thought to be the result of repeated concussions and now realized as the result of hundreds – perhaps thousands of sub-concussive blows to the head that accumulate over time.  Hernandez’s brain was the youngest of the donated brains to be identified with advanced CTE. Hernandez played football for 17 years starting when he was a young boy. The question remains did the brain damage that was identified in the post-mortem analysis cause behavior change in Hernandez and could the murder of Odin Lloyd be attributed to the build up of dangerous tau protein in his brain?
“While no one can prove a causal link between Hernandez’s brain damage and his actions, there is little dispute that he displayed CTE symptoms associated with behavioral problems, such as aggressiveness, explosiveness, impulsivity, and suicide.”
Boston Globe Bob Hohler November 9, 2017
By history Aaron Hernandez was an angry, impulsive and violent teenager that his mother reported began when his father died suddenly. Coupled with this was a biological proclivity toward degenerative brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease and CTE.  Both are diagnosed only after the death of the victim. We know that brain-behavior relationships exist from research in stroke and traumatic brain injury where focal injuries result in specific and expected changes in behavior.  These often result from a disconnection between functional centers of the brain including limbic structures that link centers for emotional regulation and the frontal system that exerts inhibitory control over those emotions. The athlete’s who have donated their brain’s upon their death have almost universally exhibited changes in behavior including poor impulse control, depression, and anger.

hernandez-and-brain-1506025580.jpg
BU Medical School and WCVB images 2017

Biofeedback: Teaching the body to return to a proper homeostasis

WESTBOROUGH, MA  November 8, 2017  There are several types of biofeedback that are useful when recovering from a concussion.  The first may help with the stress response that sometimes goes into overdrive after TBI or concussion. This involves becoming familiar with the fight-flight mechanism and its useful purpose as an early warning system.  Throughout time the autonomic nervous system (ANS) allowed animals and man to be ready whenever threats to personal safety were present. When we are able to out fox the threat then our sympathetic cascade may slowly return to normal as the parasympathetic breaking mechanism exerts its balancing influence.
There is no way to avoid a stressful life it seems.  Some people are better than others at reducing the impact of stress.  Excercise, healthy eating, regular sleep, and mindfulness reduce the impact of the stress and tension we all experience in our lives.   Michael Sefton 2017
The automatic process of sympathetic arousal ramps us up as if to say “bring it on” – activating us to fight or fly the coop.  The problem all too often is an insidious elevation of normal baseline physiological values that create a sympathetic-parasympathetic mismatch. This results from over active adrenergic fibers largely activated by hormones such a cortisol looking the system.  Over time this leads to heart disease, hypertension, and a host of inflammatory diseases and may prolong those needessly.

IMG_5093
Shown here is the HRV biofeedback screen used for paced breathing and coherence training seen here at Whittier Rehabilitation Hospital

The primary goal of all modalities of biofeedback including psychophysiologic and neurofeedback is to restore the body to its “normal” state.  The process promotes mindfulness and paced breathing to gradually lower respiratory drive, reduce heart rate and blood pressure, and enhance other abnormal physiological readings of skin conductance, finger temperature, and electromyography.  It takes practice and understanding of its value. Not everyone has elevations in each these bodily measures. The specifics of abnormal findings are discussed as part of the treatment plan with the doctor or clinician.
There is a well established link between heart rate and the pace of breathing. Autonomic regulation is the role of the brain stem that maintains the diurnal pattern of arousal for wakeful activity and sleep hygiene.  The brain stem regulates heart rate and respiratory drive as well.  These functions are vital to survival and comprise the autonomic nervous system.  The ANS functions as the brain and body’s alarm system signaling the need for fight-flight activation.  When this system is damaged due to traumatic brain injury the recovering subject can have wild swings of autonomic arousal such as elevated heart rate – patients sometimes chug along at 140-160 while autonomic storming.   Paroxysmal changes in blood pressure may pose significant risk, respiratory rate may become tachypnic, patients frequent are febrile and may become excessively sweaty  as a consequence of autonomic dysfunction.
“Autonomic dysfunction must be carefully managed in patients recovering from TBI. This is not conceptually novel although its application to health conditions continues to broaden. Biofeedback may be a useful modality for migraine headaches, anxiety, pain management, concussion, and stress. I have used a combination of physiologic and neurofeedback for patients with failure to thrive, depression, post-concussion syndrome, and severe traumatic brain injury” 2014).  In 2006 I was invited to London, UK to present the findings of a case study with a high school boy who had sustained a severe TBI and was in a minimally conscious state.  The results were remarkable and not entirely the result of the neurofeedback protocol I used with him.  Our team did a good job keeping him moving and gradually he became more functional and regained his independence. It was a fun trip I was able to take with colleague Paul Liquori, MD, medical director at Whittier Rehabilitation Hospital in Bradford.
Relaxation and mindfulness have existed for over 60 years bringing together conscious conscious effort to control bodily system that were once thought to be automatic.  Sefton, 2016

Sefton, M (2014) Blog post: https://concussionassessment.wordpress.com/consultation/topics-in-neuropsychology/tbi/autonomic-dysfunction/ Taken 11-13-17.
Sefton, M (2016) Blog post: https://concussionassessment.wordpress.com/2016/04/01/biofeedback-for-post-concussion-syndrome/ Taken 11-13-17